# Course and Course Descriptions of B. Sc. Program

Technical Elective Courses | ||

PHOT 441 Organic Materials in Photonic Applications | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 442 Plasmonics | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 443 Nanofabrication Techniques for Photonics | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 444 Photonics in Nanotechnologic Energy Applications | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 445 Introduction to Quantum Optics | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 446 Atom Optics | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 447 Optical MEMS | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 448 Silicon Photonics | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 449 Density Functional Theory for Photonics I | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS | |

PHOT 490 Research Project | (3+0) 3 / 5 ECTS |

Total credit (min.) : 132 / 247 AKTS

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**Course Descriptions**

**COMPULSORY COURSES**** **

**PHYS 101 General Physics I (2+2)3 ECTS 6**

Physical quantities, their units and measurement, Vectors, Motion in one, two and three dimensions, Newton s laws of motion and their applications; Circular motion, friction forces and drag; Work and energy; Conservation of energy and its applications; Conservation of Momentum and its applications; Systems in equilibrium; Simple Harmonic Motion; Newton s law of Gravitation

**PHYS 102 General Physics II (2+2)3 ECTS 6**

The course covers electricity, including: charge, electrostatics, Gauss law, electric field, electric potential, simple circuits, and electric currents and magnetic fields including: magnetic forces, induction, electromagnetic radiation, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law and the origins of electromagnetic waves.

**PHYS 111 General Physics Laboratory I (0+2)1 ECTS 2**

Motion in one-two dimensions, Newton s laws, measurement of the gravitational acceleration due to earth, conservation of Mechanical Energy, conservation of momentum, rotational motion and conservation angular momentum

**PHYS 112 General Physics Laboratory II (0+2)1 ECTS 2**

This course provides an introduction to the methods of experimental physics. Particular emphasis is placed on aspects of experimentation: laboratory technique, including both the execution and the documentation of an experiment; data analysis, including the systematic errors; and written communication of experimental procedures and results. The concepts and skills for measurement and data analysis are acquired gradually through a series of experiments covering a range of topics from electrostatics to magnetic fields.

**CHEM 121 General Chemistry I (3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Atoms and atomic theory, mole concept, nomenclature, chemical reactions, aqueous solutions, gases and properties, thermochemistry, electrons in atoms

**CHEM 122 General Chemistry II (3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Chemical bonding, Liquids Solids and Intermolecular forces, Solutions and their physical properties, Chemical kinetics, Chemical equilibrium.

**CHEM 141 General Chemistry Laboratory I (0+2)1 ECTS 2**

Measurement and density, Stoichiometry of a reaction, titration of acids and bases, oxidaton-reduction reaction, gas analysis based on molar volume, termochemistry, precipitation reaction, gravimetric and volumetric analysis.

**CHEM 142 General Chemistry Laboratory II (0+2)1 ECTS 2**

Determination of water hardness,soap synthesis, steam distillation, Molecular weigth determination, kintic study of reaction between ferric and iodide ions, Chemical equilibrium, weak acids weak bases and their salts, An investigation of voltaic cells

**MATH 141 Basic Calculus I (3+2)4 ECTS 5**

Functions, Limits and continuity, Derivatives, Extreme values, the Mean Value Theorem and its applications, Graphing. Integration, Fundamental theorem of Calculus, L’Hopital’s Rule, Techniques of integration, Area between two curves.

**MATH 142 Basic Calculus II (3+2)4 ECTS 6**

Integration Techniques, Improper Integrals; Tests for Convergence, Sequences and Infinite series; Tests for Convergence, Polar Coordinates, Multivariable Functions and Their Derivatives, Double integral, Double Integral in Polar Coordinates.

** ****MATH 255 Differential Equations (4+0)4 ECTS 6**

First order equations and various applications. Higher order linear differential equations. Power series solutions: ordinary and regular singular points. The Laplace transform: solution of initial value problems. Systems of linear differential equations: solutions by operator method, by Laplace transform.

** ****ENG 101 Development of Reading and Writing Skills I (3+0)3 ECTS 3**

This is a course that aims to develop skills to analyse paragraphs and essays, reading skills and written and spoken communication skills

**ENG 102 Development of Reading and Writing Skills II (3+0)3 ECTS 3**

This is a course which aims to equip students with the skills to analyse essays and articles, to write an organized essay and article, to make presentations, to take notes while listening and reading skills, which wll help them in their academic studies.

**ENG301 Technical Writing and Communication (3+0)3 ECTS 3**

Introduction to Technical Writing, How to Write the Materials and Methods Section, How to Write the Results, How to Design Effective Tables and Illustrations, How to Write the Introduction, How to Cite the References, Use and Misuse of English. A technical Writing will be assigned to each student.

** ****PHOT 100 Introduction to Photonics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 7**

Introduction to photonic materials, devices and systems in the market and literature. What is a photon? What is photonics? How to generate, modify and detect photons, Photonic devices and systems: a brief history, Successful examples from the academia on photonics, Successful examples from academia to market transition, Exemplary products from the contemporary photonics market: local and global.

**PHOT 110 Introduction to Programming ( 2+2)3 ECTS 7**

Introduction to programming and computers; vectors and arrays; execution control; making plots; matrices; numerical methods. Introduction to computers and programs, Algorithms and elemantary programming, Vectors and arrays, Loops and lists, Functions, Conditional programs, File input and output, Plotting: 2-D and 3-D plotting, Principles of problem solving

**PHOT 201 Fundamentals of Optics and Photonics I ( 4+0)4 ECTS 7**

Oscillations, simple harmonic motion, damped and forced harmonic motion, pendulums. Waves and particles, sound waves, travelling and standing waves, resonance. Interference of waves. Doppler Effect. Light and images, geometric optics, mirrors, lenses, and optical instruments. Light as a wave, interference, diffraction, and polarization.

**PHOT 202 Fundamentals of Optics and Photonics II ( 4+0)4 ECTS 7**

The basic descriptions of light as rays (geometrical optics), waves (physical optics), and photons. Polarization and diffraction of light. Reflection and refraction of light rays and waves from planar and curved surfaces. Fraunhofer diffraction, Diffraction grating, Fresnel diffraction, Matrix treatment of polarization, Production of polarized light , Matrix methods in paraxial optics, Fourier optics, Theory of multilayer films, Fresnel equations, Nonlinear optics

**PHOT 211 Fundamentals of Optics and Photonics Laboratory I ( 0+4)2 ECTS 6**

Light and images, geometric optics, mirrors, lenses, and optical instruments. Light as a wave, interference, diffraction, and polarization. Introduction of instruments and experiment system. Measuring the focal length of a lens, Youngs double slit interference, Diffraction of a grating, Assembling a microscope

**PHOT 212 Fundamentals of Optics and Photonics Laboratory II ( 0+4)2 ECTS 6**

Light and images, geometric optics, mirrors, lenses, and optical instruments. Light as a wave, interference, diffraction, and polarization. Introduction of instruments and experiment system, Assembling a prism based spectrometer, Assembling a diffraction grating based spectrometer, Analysing polarization status of light beams, Diffraction of a grating, Assembling a telescope

**PHOT 222 Fundamentals of Quantum Photonics ( 3+2)4 ECTS 7**

Blackbody radiation, Photoelectric effect and atomic spectra; Matter waves and Schrödinger equation; probability and uncertainty; potential barriers; harmonic oscillator; Hydrogen atom; many electron atoms; classical and quantum statistics; an introduction to the quantum physics of solids. Particle properties of waves , Matter waves and uncertainty, Atomic structure and energy levels, Schrödinger’s Equation, Particles in attractive potentials, Harmonic oscillator, Potential barriers and tunneling, Hydrogen atom, Many-electron atoms, Classical and quantum statistics.

**PHOT 231 Mathematical Methods in Photonics I ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Differential Vector Operators, Vector Integration, Integral Theorems, Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinates, Linear Vector Spaces, Linear Operators, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Special Functions, Complex Functions, Cauchy’s Theorem, Residue Theorem.

**PHOT 232 Mathematical Methods in Photonics II ( 3+0)3 ECTS 6**

Fourier and Laplace Transforms, Legendre Equation, Bessel’s Equation, Hermite’s Equation, Partial Differential Equations, Laplace’s Equation, The Diffusion Equation, The Wave Equation, Boundary Value Problems and Sturm-Liouville Theory, Green’s Functions. Fourier Series, Complex Fourier Series, Fourier Transforms, Parseval’s Theorem, Laplace Transforms, Inverse Laplace Transforms, Power Series Methods, Singular Points, The Method of Frobenius, Legendre’s Equation, Legendre Polynomials, Bessel’s Equation, Hermite’s Equation, Partial Differential Equations, Laplace’s Equation, The Diffusion Equation, The Wave Equation, Boundary Value Problems, Linear Homogeneous Boundary Value Problems, Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems, Self-adjoint Problems, Green’s Functions in Electrodynamics

**PHOT 301 Quantum Photonics ( 3+2)4 ECTS 6**

Particles as waves, Schrödinger’s equation. Expectations values, operators, eigenvalues, and stationary states. Dirac formalism. One-dimensional problems. Angular momentum and hydrogen atom. Spin. Harmonic oscillators and photons. Emission and absorption. Waves and Schrödinger’s equation., Time-dependent Schrödinger’s equation., Functions and operators, Approximation methods, Angular momentum and Hydrogen atom, Methods for one-dimensional problems, Spin, Identical particles, The density matrix, Harmonic oscillators and photons, Stimulated emission, spontaneous emission, and optical absorption

**PHOT 304 Solid State Optics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Crystal Structure, Crystal Lattice and Lattice displacement vectors, Primitif cell, Crystal directions and planes, simple crystal structures, primitive cells, Reciprocal lattice, Interatomic bonding Electronic Band Structure, Optical Properties, Propagation of Light in Dense Medium

**PHOT 311 Electrodynamics I ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Electric Field, Electric potential, Electrostatic energy, Coulomb and Gauss Law, Magetostatic, Biot-Savart and Ampere laws, Maxwell equtions. Fundamental Math for Electromagnetism, Electric Field Electric Potential, Work and Energy in Electrostatics, Electrostatic Properties of Coductors, Electrostatic Properties of Insulators, Potentials, Electric Fields: Fundamentals

Electric Fields in Matter: Electric Displacement, Electric Fields in Matter: Linear Dielectrics

**PHOT 312 Electrodynamics II ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Magetostatic, Lorentz Force, Biot-Savart and Ampere laws, Maxwell equtions, Vector Potential, Electromagnetic Waves. What Is Magnetism ? Lorentz Force Law, The Biot-Savart Law, Magnetic Vector Potential, Magnetizability, susceptibility, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism, Magnetic Field inside the Matter, Magnetic Field inside the Nonlinear Media, Electromotive force and Induction, Maxwell’s equations for Magnetic Fields, Electromagnetic waves in vacuum, Electromagnetic waves in matter

**PHOT 320 Optoelectronics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Light sources, optical components, elements of solid state physics, junctions, modulation of light, display devices, LEDs, Lasers, photodetectors. Wave nature of light, optical components and light sources, Elements of solid-state physics: important properties of semiconductors, Elements of solid-state physics: transport in semiconductors, The p-n junctions, p-n and p-i-n diode characteristics, Modulation of light, Display devices, LEDs, Lasers, Photodetectors, Solar cells, Fiber optics, Optical communication systems

**PHOT 321 Electronic Circuits ( 3+2)4 ECTS 7**

Basic circuit elements, circuit analysis techniques, Kirchoff’s current law, Thevenin and Norton Equivalent circuits, Diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Operational Amplifiers. Basic concepts: voltage, current, power, energy, Voltage and Current sources, Ohm’s law, equivalent resistance, Voltage divider and current divider circuits, Kirchoff Current Law. Node voltage and loop current analyses, Norton and Thevenin equivalent circuits, Maximum power transfer, P-N diode and diode circuits: Voltage regulators, Operational Amplifiers and small signal analysis, Inductance and capacitance: mutual coupling, First order RL and RC circuits: time-dependent (step) and steady-state (natural) analyses, RLC Circuits, Common Electronic circuits in photonics: transimpedance amplifier, Common Electronic circuits in photonics: LED and LD drivers

**PHOT 322 Optoelectronics Laboratory ( 0+3)1 ECTS 5**

Laboratory safety, handling and building of optoelectronic circuits and devices. Laboratory safety, Experiment I: coherent and incoherent light sources, Experiment II: determining carrier density and type of semiconductors, Experiment III: L-I-V characteristics of LEDs, Experiment IV: L-I-V characteristics of Laser diodes, Experiment V: Responsivity characteristics of photodetectors, Experiment VI: Solar cell characterization, Experiment VII: Fabrication of a liquid crystal display, Experiment VIII: Characterization of a liquid crystal display,

**PHOT 331 Molecular Photonics I ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Introduction; The states of matter, Physical state, Force, Energy, Pressure, Temperature, Amount of substance, Extensive and intensive properties, Measures of concentration, Reaction stoichiometry, The properties of gases, Thermodynamics: the first law, Thermodynamics: the Second Law, Physical equilibria, The properties of mixtures, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical kinetics, Solid surfaces, electronic transitions and photophysics; Ultraviolet and visible spectra, Radiative and nonradiative decay, energy and electron transfer processes

**PHOT 332 Molecular Photonics II ( 4+0)4 ECTS 7**

Organic photonic materials general introduction, atoms and molecules, orbitals and covalent bonding, Structural isomerism, nomenclating and alkanes, Alkyl halogenide: substitution and elimination reactions, Alkyl halogenide: substitution and elimination reactions, Alcohols, Eters, epoxides and sulphides, Alkene and alkyne, Aromaticity and benzene: electrophilic aromatic substitution, Aldehydes and ketones, Carboxylic acids, Amines, Free radical reactions, Photochemistry.

**PHOT 400 Summer Internship ( 0+0)0 ECTS 8**

It requires students to continue their internship in a workplace for 6 weeks (30 working days) in order to gain work experience. In this process, the student makes practical applications, recognizes the general structure of the company and participates in the projects made in that company. In order to successfully complete the internship, students should prepare their reports in accordance with the Internship Guide of IYTE Science Faculty. To be acquainted with the firm, learning about the assignments and responsibilities, Professional experience, Report preparation

**PHOT 411 Numerical Methods in Photonics ( 2+2)3 ECTS 6**

Finite-difference time domain method, finite-difference frequency domain method, finite element method, Fourier method, contemporary problems in computational photonics. Optics and electromagnetism, Basic numerical methods, Finite-difference time domain method, Finite-difference frequency domain method, Fourier method, Eigenvalue problems, Finite element method, Softwares for photonics, Special problems

**PHOT 412 Introduction to Biophotonics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Basics of biology, light-tissue interaction, basics of bioimaging, optical biosensors, photodynamic therapy, tissue engineering with light, bionanophotonics. Basics of biology, Fundamentals of light-tissue interactions, Photobiology, Principles of bioimaging, Bioimaging applications, Optical biosensors: targets, contrast, applications, Photodynamic therapy, Tissue engineering with light, Lasers, Nanotechnology for biophotonics, Biomaterials for photonics

**PHOT 421 Introduction to Lasers ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Review of beam optics, optical cavities, laser oscillation, lasing action, mode locking, q-switching, continuous beam and pulsed lasers. General Cavity Concepts, Gaussian Beams in Cavities, Cavity Q and Finesse, Photon Lifetime, mode selection, Atomic Radiation, Einstein’s A and B Coefficients, Line Shape, Laser Oscillation and Amplification, Gain and Threshold, Characteristics of Lasers, CW Lasers, Laser Dynamics, Pumping lasers, excitation methods, Rate equations for three and four level systems, Pulsed lasers, Q-switching, Gain-switching, Mode Locking, Saturable Absorbers, Ultrafast lasers

**PHOT 422 Nanophotonics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

The basic descriptions of nanophotonics, quantum confined materials, near-field interaction and microscopy, nanocontrol of excitation dynamics. General introduction to plasmonics. Introduction to nanophotonics, Foundations for nanophotonics, Quantum-confined materials, Plasmonics, Nanocontrol of excitation Dynamics, Growth and characterization of nanomaterials

**PHOT 431 Modern Techniques in Spectroscopy ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Electromagnetic spectrum material interaction; UV-Vis and emission spectroscopy (UV-Vis, PL, TAS, IPCE, IMPS); Vibrational Spectroscopy (IR and Raman); Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); Electron Spin Resonance (ESR); X-ray spectroscopy; Electron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS); Mössbauer spectroscopy (gamma ray); Mass spectroscopy; Thermal analysis.

**PHOT 499 Graduation Project ( 0+4)2 ECTS 10**

Theoretical and / or experimental research studies within the framework of a research project defined by the related faculty member. Introduction of the research project subjects and selection, Literature search, Initiation of experiments in the laboratory/ Theoretical studying-modelling works, Experiments- Analyses/Modelling design, Submission of preliminary report to the lecturer – discussion of the report, Experiments- Analysis-Interpretation-Discussion, Gathering of all data –Discussion- Interpretation, Submission of first draft report to the lecturer-Refinements, Preparation of final report-Last experiments and preparations, Admission of final report and poster presentations

**TECHNICAL E****LECTIVE COURSES**

**PHOT 441 Organic Materials in Photonic Applications ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Semiconductor, conductor, insulator definition, Functional groups, Organic semiconductors, classification, Organic semiconductors in light sensing, Organic semiconductors in analyte and biosensing, Organic semiconductors in light production, Organic semiconductors in light manipulation, along with practical examples

**PHOT 442 Plasmonics (3+0)3 ECTS 5**

The basic descriptions of excitaion of surface plasmon polaritons. Plasmonic cavities. Plasmonic band gap formation. Plasmon exciton coupling.

** ****PHOT 443 Nanofabrication Techniques for Photonics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Nanofabrication is a technology that enables nanodevice and nanoscience research. It refers to the fabricated structures in the dimension of below 100 nm. Their uses aren’t limited to semiconductor devices and circuits. This course will teach different techniques used in nanofabrication inclduing but not limited to lithography, Ebeam, Ion Beam, FIB, RIE, and wet etching

**PHOT 444 Photonics in Nanotechnologic Energy Applications ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Energy terms, energy source, change, distribution, storage and usage, Nano effects as a Basis for Product Innovations, Potentials of Primary Energy Sources, Innovation Potentials along the Energy Value-Added Chain, Application Potentials in the Energy Sector, Practical Examples

** ****PHOT 445 Introduction to Quantum Optics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Radiative transitions, photon statistics, coherent and squeezed states, quantization of light field, quantum states of light, atom-photon interaction (quantum and semi-classical theory), quantum gases, quantum information. Optical Background, Radiative Transitions in Atoms, Photon Statistics, Photon Antibunching, Coherent States and Squeezed light, Quantization of Electromagnetic Field, Photon Number States, Resonant Light atom Interactions, Atoms in Cavities, Cold Atoms, Quantum Information Processing

**PHOT 446 Atom Optics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Overview of basic formalism and classification of atomic optics. Atoms in an external fields. Light forces on atoms. Light-matter interaction. Atomic cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation. Atoms and electronic structure, Hyperfine Hamiltonian, Review of many-body theory, Atoms in an external magnetic field, Atoms in an external electric field, Interaction with light, Coherences, Light forces on atoms, Atomic cooling, Matter-wave coherence, Bose-Einstein condensation, Special problems

**PHOT 447 Optical MEMS ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Optical MEMS for communication, imaging and sensing applications. Bio-micro and nano-photonics and optofluidics. Optical MEMS introduction, Optical scanners based on MEMS technology. Optical MEMS phased array, Optical MEMS for space applications, MEMS vibratory grating scanners, F-P filters and applications in spectrometers and gas sensing, Electrically and thermally activated optical MEMS mirror arrays, Optical resonators for biosensing, Terahertz MEMS metamaterials, Optofluidic devices and their applications, Implantable CMOS microphotonic devices, Microfluidic photocatalysis

**PHOT 448 Silicon Photonics ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Passive and active devices, and integrated optics in silicon photonics. Simulation tools. Silicon, silicon-on-insulator, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide: basic optical properties, Waveguides, slab and ridge waveguides in silicon platform, Mode calculations in silicon platform, effective index method, Directional couplers, Y-branch, Mach Zehnder Interferometer, Ring resonators, Waveguide Bragg Grating Filters, Empirical models for fabricated gratings, Spiral and phase-shifted Bragg gratings, Optical input/output: grating couplers, edge couplers, Polarization dependence of waveguide coupling, Modulators, Modulators: plasma dispersion effect in silicon, p-n junction phase shifter, Electro-optical modulators

**PHOT 449 Density Functional Theory for Photonics I ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Density Functional Theory, Basic Solid State Physics, Basic Unix Codes for computation. What Is DFT? Total Energy, Cohesive Energy, Formation Energy, Thomas-Fermi Model

Hohenberg-Kohn Theorems, Ab Initio Methods, Pseudopotentials, LDA and GGA Approaches, Kohn-Sham Orbitals, Self-Consistent Calculations, Application: Structural Optimization, Application: Determination of Electronic Band Structure, Application: Determination of Dielectric Properties, Application: Computation of Optical Coefficients of Materials

**PHOT 490 Research Project ( 3+0)3 ECTS 5**

Guided literature review and research. Purpose driven practical laboratory work. Current experimental procedures. Teamwork and problem solving. Protocolling of laboratory research. Introduction of the research project subjects and selection, Literature Review, Introduction to Experimental Methods, Experimental Research, Submission of preliminary report to the lecturer – discussion of the report, Report Preparation